Wavy projections formed at the opera end of a cup or shell in the course of deep drawing because of differences in directional properties. Also termed scallop. (See Non-Scalloping Quality Strip Steel)

Eddy-Current Testing
Nondestructive testing method in which eddy-curent flow is induced in the test object. Changes in the flow caused by variations in the object are reflected into a nearby coil or coils for subsequent analysis by suitable instrumentation and techniques.

Many types of edges can be produced in the manufacture of flat rolled metal products. Over the years the following types of edges have become recognized as standard in their respective fields.

    • Copper Base Alloys:
      Slit, Slit and Edge Rolled, Sheared, Sawed, Machined or Drawn

    • Sheet Steels or Aluminium Sheet:
      Mill Edge, Slit Edge or Sheared Edge.
    • Strip Steels and Stainless Strip
    No.1  Edge - A smooth, uniform, round or square edge, either slit or filed or slit and edge rolled as specified, width tolerance +/-.005”. 

    No.2  Edge - A natural round mill edge carried through from the hot rolled band. Has not been slit, filed, or edge rolled. Tolerances not closer than hot-rolled strip limits.

    No.3  Edge - Square, produced by slitting only. Not filed. Width tolerance close.

    No.4  Edge - A round edge produced by edge rolling either from a natural mill edge or from slit edge strip. Not as perfect as No. 1 edge. Width tolerances liberal.

    No.5  Edge - An approximately square edge produced by slitting and filing or slitting and rolling to remove burr.

    No.6  Edge - A square edge produced by square edge rolling, generally from square edge hot-rolled occasionally from slit strip. Width tolerances and finish not as exacting as No. 1 edge.

Edge Filing
A method whereby the raw or slit edges of strip metal are passed or drawn one or more times against a series of files, mounted at various angles. This method may be used for deburring only or filing to a specific contour including a completely rounded edge.

Edge Rolling (Edge Conditioning)
Rolling a strip of steel to smooth the edges. By removing the burr off the coil, it is safer for customers to manipulate.

Edge Strain or Edge Breaks
Creases extending in from the edge of the temper rolled sheet.

Edgewise Curvature
(See Camber)

The dressing of metal strip edges by rolling, filing or drawing.

Egg-Shaped Coils
Coil that is sagging at the center.

Elastic Limit
Maximum stress that a material will stand before permanent deformation occurs.

Electric Arc Furnace (EAF)
Steelmaking furnace where scrap is generally 100% of the charge. Heat is supplied from electricity that arcs from the graphite electrodes to the metal bath. Furnaces may be either an alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC). DC units consume less energy and fewer electrodes, but they are more expensive.

Electric Furnace Steel
Steel made in any furnace where heat is generated electrically, almost always by arc. Because of relatively high cost, only tool steels and other high-value steels are made by the electric furnace process.

Electric Resistance Welded (ERW) Pipe
Pipe made from strips of hot-rolled steel which are passed through forming rolls and welded. While seamless pipe is traditionally stronger and more expensive than comparable ERW pipe, ERW technology is improving and the technique now accounts for approximately 48% of OCTG shipments by tonnage.

Electrical Steel
(See Silicon Electrical Steel)

Electro cleaning
(Electrolytic Brightening) - An anodic treatment. A cleaning, polishing, or oxidizing treatment in which the specimen or work is made the anode in a suitable electrolyte; an inert metal is used as cathode and a potential is applied.

Galvanizing by electrodeposition of zinc on steel.

Electrolytic Polishing
(See Electro cleaning)

Electrolytic Tin Plate
Black Plate that has been tin plated on both sides with commercially pure tin by electrodeposition. (See Tin Plating)
Electron-beam cutting
Thermal cutting in vacuum by melting and vaporizing a narrow section of the metal by the impact of a focused beam of electrons.

The production of a thin coating of one metal on another by electrodeposition. It is very extensively used in industry and is continuing to enlarge its useful functions. Various plated metals and combinations thereof are being used for different purpose to illustrate:

   1. Decoration and protection against corrosion….copper, nickel & chromium
   2. Protection against corrosion…………………...…………...cadmium or zinc
   3. Protection against wear…………………….......…………………..chromium
   4. Build-up of a part or parts undersize……………..……...chromium or nickel
   5. Plate for rubber adhesion……………………………………..............…brass
   6. Protection against carburization & for brazing operations......copper & nickel

Increase in length which occurs before a metal is fractured, when subjected to stress. This is usually expressed as a percentage of the original length and is a measure of the ductility of the metal.

Elongation After Fracture
In tensile testing, the increase in the gauge length measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length and usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length.

Embossed sheet
An embossed sheet is one having a prominent, impressed texture or pattern on its surface(s). If the defined texture is applied to essentially on surface only, it is most properly termed a coined surface. If the texture or pattern carries through the entire body of the sheet and appears on both surfaces it is a true embossed surface.

Raising or indenting a design in relief on a sheet or strip of metal by passing between rolls of desired pattern. (See Patterned or Embossed Sheet)

End-quench hardenability test (jominy test)
A method for determining the hardenability of steel by water-quenching one end of an austenitized cylindrical test specimen and measuring the resulting hardness at specified distances from the quench end.

Endurance Limit
Maximum alternating stress, which a given material will withstand for an indefinite number of times, without causing fatigue failure.

Environmental Cracking
The cracking and corroding of a normally ductile material due to environmental conditions.

Erichsen Test
Similar to the Olsen Test. Readings are in millimeters.

The continuous depletion of a material due to mechanical interaction with a liquid, a multi-component fluid, or solid particles carried with the fluid.

An accelerated loss of material concerning corrosion and erosion that results from corrosive material interacting with the material.

In metallography, the process of revealing structural details by the preferential attack of reagents on a metal surface.

Eutectoid Steel
Steel representing the eutectoid composition of the iron carbon system, with about 0.80% to 0.83% carbon, the eutectoid temperature being about 1333°F. Such steel in the annealed condition consists exclusively of pearlite. Steels with less than this quota of carbon are known as hypo-eutectoid and contain free ferrite in addition to the pearlite. When more carbon is present, the steel is known as hyper-eutectoid and contains free cementite. The presence of certain elements, such as nickel or chromium, lowers the eutectoid carbon content.

Excess penetration bead
Excessive metal protruding through the root of a fusion weld made from one side only.

A type of corrosion that progresses approximately parallel to the outer surface of the metal, causing layers of the metal to be elevated by the formation of corrosion product.
An apparatus for indicating the deformation of metal while it is subjected to stress.

Extensometer Test
The measurement of deformation during stressing in the elastic range, permitting determination of elastic properties such as proportional limit, proof stress, yield strength by the offset method and so forth. Requires the use of special testing equipment and testing procedures such as the use of an extensometer or the plotting of a stress-strain diagram.

Extra Deep Drawing Steel
Sheet of this designation has superior formability and excellent uniformity.  It is produced from steel having a very low carbon content with stabilizing elements added to make it interstitial free.  It is a non-aging steel sheet with high resistance to thinning during drawing and is suitable for critical forming applications.

Extra Hard Temper
In brass mill terminology, Extra Hard is six B & S numbers hard or 50.15% reduction from the previous annealing or soft stage.

Extra Spring Temper
In brass mill terminology, Extra Spring is ten numbers hard or 68.55% reduction in thickness from the previous annealing or soft stage.

Extra Smooth Galvanized
An Extra-Smooth finish is imparted to hot-dip metallic-coated steel sheet by temper rolling after coating to decrease the surface relief that occurs when the molten coating solidifies. The spangle pattern (grain pattern) is made distinctly less visible by the matte finish imparted by the rolling operation. Most Extra-Smooth sheet is intended for either pre-painted or post painted applications.

Shaping metal into a chosen continuous form by forcing it through a die of appropriate shape. 

Eye of Coil
The center of the coil as wound.