W


Walking Beam Furnace

A type of continuous reheat furnace in which the billet or slab moves through distinct heating zones within the furnace: By controlling the speed through the zones, steelmakers can achieve precise rolling temperatures and consume less fuel during operation.

Warrant
A document of possession, issued by the warehouse company, for each lot of LME approved metal held within an LME approved facility. Warrants are used as the means of delivering metal under LME contracts.

Wash Coat
A very thin paint film applied to the back side of a pre-painted sheet specified to have one finished side. The wash coat provides protection in coiling , storage, fabricating and handling.
 
Wasters
Sheets that have prohibited defects, for example seams and buckled plates. Generally fit for re-melting purposes only.


Watch Main Spring Steel
Usually supplied cold rolled and annealed in large widths and cut and hardened by the spring manufacturers. Carbon content about 1.15% and Tungsten .17%, extra precision rolled.

Water Hardening
Process of hardening high carbon steels by quenching in water or brine after heating.

Wavy
Not flat. A slight wave following the direction of rolling and beyond the standard limitation for flatness.


Weathering Steel
A steel using alloying elements such as copper, chromium, silicon and nickel to enhance resistance to atmospheric corrosion.  (USS COR-TEN)
 
Wedge
A hardwood stick used as a forming tool in spinning.

Welding
A process used to join metals by the application of heat. Fusion welding, which includes gas, arc, and resistance welding, requires that the parent metals be melted. This distinguishes fusion welding from brazing. In pressure welding joining is accomplished by the use of heat and pressure without melting. The parts that are being welded are pressed together and heated simultaneously, so that re-crystallization occurs across the interface.
 
Weld junction
The boundary between the fusion zone and the heat affected zone.

Welding procedure
A specified course of action followed in welding including the list of materials and, where necessary, tools to be used.

Welding sequence
The order and direction in which joints, welds or runs are made.

Welding technique
The manner is which the operator manipulates an electrode, a blowpipe or a similar appliance.

Wet Film Thickness
The thickness of the paint film immediately after coating and prior to curing. The required wet film thickness is dependent on the proportion of solids and solvents in the liquid paint for producing the appropriate dry film thickness.

Wide-Flange Beam
A structural steel section on which the flanges are not tapered, but have equal thickness from the tip to the web and are at right angles to the web. Wide-flange beams are differentiated by the width of the web, which can range from 3 inches to more than 40 inches, and by the weight of the beam, measured in pounds per foot.

Widmanstatten Structure
A structure characterized by a geometrical pattern resulting from the formation of a new phase along certain crystallographic planes of the parent solid solution. The orientation of the lattice in the new phase is related crystallographically to the orientation of the lattice in the parent phase. The structure was originally observed in meteorites but is readily produced in many other alloys with certain heat treatment.

Widths
The lateral dimension of rolled steel, as opposed to the length or the gauge (thickness). If width of the steel strip is not controlled during rolling, the edges must be trimmed.

WMB, WHB and Extra WHB Grades
Spring steel wires produced from acid open-hearth steels (see M B Grade).

Wootz
A carbon steel containing 1 to 1.6% C produced by melting a bloomer iron or an inhomogeneous steel with charcoal in a crucible. The process originated in India as early as the 3rd century A.D.

Work Hardening
Increase in resistant to deformation (i.e. in hardness) produced by cold working.

Workability
The characteristic or group of characteristic that determines the ease of forming a metal into desired shapes.

Worm-hole
An elongated or tubular cavity formed entrapped gas during the solidification of molten metal.

Worms
(See Stretcher Strains)

Wrought Iron
Iron containing only a very small amount of other elements, but containing 1-3% by weight of slag in the form of particles elongated in one direction, giving the iron a characteristic grain. Is more rust-resistant than steel and welds more easily.

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z