Radiant Tube Annealing Box
A box which is heated, inside, by means of tubes on which gas is burned; the hot tubes radiate their heat to the covered pile of metal, standing on the base of the box. Usually a protective atmosphere is maintained in the box to protect the metal from oxidation.
A nondestructive method of internal
examination in which metal objects are exposed to a beam of X-ray or gamma
radiation. Differences in thickness, density or absorption, caused by internal
defects or inclusions, are apparent in the shadow image either on a fluorescent
screen or on photographic film placed behind the object.
Edges of Sheet or Strip which are torn,
split, cracked, ragged or burred or otherwise disfigured.
(1) Increasing the carbon content of molten
cast iron or steel by adding carbonaceous material, high-carbon pig iron or a
(2) Carburizing a metal part to return surface carbon lost in
Reciprocal Lattice (for a
A group of points arranged about a center in
such a way that the line joining each point of the center is perpendicular to a
family of planes in the crystal, and the length of this line is inversely
proportional to their interplanar distance.
(1) The removal of residual stresses by
localized plastic flow as the result of low-temperature annealing operations;
performed on cold worked metals without altering the grain structure or strength
(1) The change from one crystal structure to
another, as occurs on heating or cooling through a critical temperature.
formation of a new, strain-free grain structure from that existing in cold
worked metal, usually accomplished by heating.
The approximate minimum temperature at which
complete re-crystallization of a cold worked metal occurs within a specified
Annealing cold worked metal to produce a new
grain structure without a phase change.
85% Copper -- A copper-zinc alloy containing
approximately 15% zinc, used for plumbing pipe, hardware, condenser tubes.
Because of its color, is used or vanity cases, coins, plaques, badges, etc. It
is somewhat stronger than commercial bronze and is hardened more rapidly by cold
Brittleness in steel when it is red hot.
Either natural gas or coal can be used to remove the oxygen from iron ore in
order to produce a scrap substitute. In gas-based processes, the iron ore is
heated in a vessel as reformed natural gas passes through. In coal-based
processes, iron ore is combined with gasified or ground coal and heated. The
oxygen in the ore combines with carbon and hydrogen in the gas or coal,
producing reduced, or metallic, iron.
Reduction of Area
- Commonly, the difference, expressed as a
percentage of original area, between the original cross-sectional area of a
tensile test specimen and the minimum cross-sectional area measured after
- The difference, expressed as a percentage of original
area, between original cross-sectional area and that after straining the
A processing plant usually associated with a smelter that produces high purity metal.
A temperature, usually just higher than the
transformation range, employed in the heat treatment of steel to refine the
structure -- in particular, the grain size.
An alclad product containing on one side a
surface layer of high-purity aluminum superimposed on a core or base alloy of
commercial-purity aluminum or an aluminum-manganese alloy. The high-purity
coating imparts good polishing characteristics and the core gives adequate
strength and formability.
A term to indicate the
percentage of reflected light from a painted surface.
Considered a function of color rather than specular gloss.
Reflectance percentages usually range from 80% to 90% for
white colors to 5% to 15% for dark colors. Reflectivity
standards vary for each industry and specific application.
A heat-resistant material, usually nonmetallic, which is used for furnace linings and such.
A term applied to those alloys which due to hardness or abrasiveness present relative difficulty in maintaining close dimensional tolerances.
Printing successive colors
or figures in a precise pattern and with exact
Heat-resistant brick. Because its melting point is well above the operating
temperatures of the process, refractory bricks line most steelmaking vessels
that come in contact with molten metal, like the walls of the blast furnace,
sides of the ladles, and inside of the BOF.
Reinforcing Bar (Rebar)
A commodity-grade steel used to strengthen concrete in highway and building
The process of replacing the refractory lining of a liquid steel vessel. Once it
wears out, the brick lining of a furnace must be cooled, stripped and replaced.
This maintenance can be significant because a blast furnace reline may require
up to three months to complete.
A Ladle-chemical treatment consisting of the
addition of phosphorus as a work hardening agent when temper rolling black plate
or sheet steel resulting in greater hardness and stiffness and with a
corresponding loss in ductility. . NOTE: Black Plate in tempers T5 and T6 (R/B
range 68/84) are temper rolled from Rephosphorized steel.
Small quantities of elements unintentionally
present in an alloy.
Macroscopic stresses that are set up within a metal as the result of non-uniform plastic deformation. This deformation may be caused by cold working or by drastic gradients of temperature from quenching or welding.
Stress remaining in a metal part or structure as a result of welding.
The impurities in mini-mill steel as the result of the mix of metals entering
the process dissolved in obsolete scrap. Residuals are key concerns regarding
the mini-mills' recent entry into the flat-rolled market, where high residuals
can leave sheet steel too brittle for customer use.
The tendency of a material to return to its
original shape after the removal of a stress that has produced elastic strain.
A type of welding process in which the work
pieces are heated by the passage of an electric current through the contact.
Such processes include spot welding, seam or line welding and percussion
welding. Flash and butt-welding are sometimes considered as resistance welding
The capacity of an optical or radiation
system to separate closely spaced forms or entities; also, the degree to which
such forms or entities can be discriminated.
Steel to which sulfur has been added in controlled amounts after refining. The
sulfur is added to improve machinability.
Reverse bend test
A bend test in which the other than that specified for a face bend test is in
The stand of rolls used to reduce steel sheet or plate by passing the steel back
and forth between the rolls; the gap between the rolls is reduced after each
A term applied to a common method of winding
strip steel layer upon layer around an arbor or mandrel.
Waviness at the edge of sheet or strip.
A gas welding technique in which the flame is (Backward welding)
Low-carbon steel containing sufficient iron
oxide to produce continuous evolution of carbon monoxide during ingot
solidification, resulting in a case or rim of metal virtually free of voids.The rim is of somewhat purer composition than the original metal poured. If the
rimming action is stopped shortly after pouring of the ingot is completed, the
metal is known as capped steel. Most steels below 0.15% carbon are rimmed
steels. For the same carbon and manganese content rimmed steel is softer than
The circle of seats on the LME floor which brokers occupy when trading. More commonly the term is used to describe the periods of trading which are broken down in to 5 minute sessions for each metal.>/p>
(Defect) - A slight transverse wave or shadow mark appearing at intervals along the piece.
Rockwell Hardness (Test)
A standard method for measuring the hardness
of metals. The hardness is expressed as a number related to the depth of
residual penetration of a steel ball or diamond cone (brale) after a minor load
of 10 kilograms has been applied to hold the penetrator in position. This
residual penetration is automatically registered on a dial when the major load
is removed from the penetrator. Various dial readings combined with different
major loads, five scales designated by letters varying from A to H; the B and C
scales are most commonly in use.
Round, thin semi-finished steel length that is rolled from a billet and coiled
for further processing. Rod is commonly drawn into wire products or used to make
bolts and nails. Rod trains (rolling facilities) can run as fast as 20,000 feet
per minute, more than 200 miles an hour.
Roll Force Systems
Mill stands place considerable pressure on slabs, blooms and coils to further
process the material. There are two general ways of applying the force to the
steel, screw and hydraulic systems.
Root (of weld)
The zone on the side of the first run farthest from the welder.
The portion of a fusion face at the root which is not beveled or grooved.
Screw (Incline Plane)
This older method used the basic principle of the
screw to adjust the space between the mill rolls. Because metal touches metal,
these configurations will wear down over time and can cause quality problems.
Hydraulic (Pancake Cylinder)
This modern system uses fluid pressure to
rapidly adjust the roll spacing several times per second. These minute,
instantaneous adjustments allow for superior gauge tracking and higher-quality
An operation used in forming sheet. Strips of
sheet are passed between rolls of definite settings that bend the sheet
progressively into structural members of various contours, sometimes called
Finished edges, the final contours of which
are produced by side or edging rolls. The edge contours most commonly used are
square corners, rounded corners and rounded edge.
Rolled In Scale
A surface defect consisting of scale
partially rolled into the surface of the sheet.
Leveling by passing flat stock through a
machine having a series of small-diameter staggered rolls.
Reducing the cross-sectional area of metal
stock, or otherwise shaping metal products, through the use of rotating rolls.
(In rolled metal) - The direction, in the plane of the sheet, perpendicular to the axes of the rolls during rolling.
Equipment used for rolling down metal to a smaller size or to a given shape employing sets of rolls tie contours of which determine or fashion the product into numerous intermediate and final shapes, e.g., blooms, slabs, rails, bars, rods, sections, plates, sheets and strip.
Rotary Shear (Slitting
A cutting machine with sharpened circular
blades or disc-like cutters used for trimming edges and slitting sheet and foil.
NOTE: cutter discs are also employed in producing circles from flat sheets but
with differently designed machines.
Rule Die Steel
A hardened and tempered medium high carbon
spring steel strip sufficiently low in hardness to take moderately sharp bends
without fracture, intended for manufacture into rule dies for the purpose of
cutting or stamping fabrics, paper, cardboard, plastics, and metal foil into
A piece, or pieces, of metal so placed as to enable the full section of weld
to be obtained at the end of the joint.